2009-05-20

景教碑The Nestorian Stele

  對沒唸過什么書的在下,有機會出門,省吃(整天吃包)省用(常坐巴士走路),但總會花點錢來附庸風雅,或去參觀一些知名大學(過去半年有機會到過北京大學、清華大學及台灣大學等)、或買一些看起來很有學問的物品書籍,以便擺或掛在河必(office)擺涼(吹冷氣用),嚇嚇到訪的客人或友人。
  去年到西安,除了去看兵馬俑及楊貴妃的沖涼房及long bath,主要還是去碑林看《大秦景教碑》,不過原版看了有點令人失望,因為石頭太久都看不清,還是前幾年在南京的金陵神學院買到的拓版,現在掛在河必成為焦點,內容比較清楚!
圖上是原來石塊的景教碑有龍雕的招牌,表明是與皇室有關連的VIP級紀錄。

在西安碑林所展出的石碑中,重要的都嵌以玻璃加以保護,圖下左就是景教碑,被玻璃圍住,雕刻的文字不是很容易看的清楚!下面由神龜背著。

  圖下這是在下河必的拓版景教碑,很多客人來都看不懂,在下就會口沬橫飛的比手劃腳,指點一番,裝模作樣,看起來大有學問者般!不過,在下也會看人而發言,若是中國什么教授來,就要用謙卑受教的心來聆聽,但一般本地的阿弟仔阿妹仔來時,包括唸歷史系出身的阿必哥,往往就是在下吐氣(口水)揚眉,大顯老花的時候!
  阿必哥通常不會聽完程度比他差的人講完話,聽不到幾句就跑去外頭,以表不服氣;第二次來時就從圖書館找一本書給在下看,其中有部份翻譯內容,哈,不是很詳細。目前本地坊間最詳細的白話文版解釋景教碑的就是在下於去年出版的《中國基督教探源.北京教堂尋訪錄》,也是遊北京參觀教堂者人手必備的自助書,有心者可以去福音書局購買一本!

去年阿必哥(右)帶領衛理神學院的學生來在下河必,由在下解釋其碑文,圖示神學生合影於拓版的景教碑前。

四肢發達,空手道黑帶的阿麒,拍照重要,對在下的口水沒興趣,見這類學生就知道老師是怎樣的了,哈哈哈......(仿阿必哥恐怖笑聲)

日前受阿啟哥邀請到實蘭溝佈道站的成團演說時展示景教碑,並講解部份內容,除了在下幾乎全部的人都5678,5678......不過會後拍照大家都很高興,感覺上了一課重要歷史課程!

附錄:景教碑的前面一段提及教義的原來內文(黑體)及白話翻譯文(括弧)

大景秦教碑

粵若。

(發語辭,無實際意義。)

常然真寂,先先而無元。

(那永恒的,又永不改變的存在,是真正肅靜的,在萬有之先而無始。)

窅然靈虛,後後而妙有。

(窅是杳,音yao,深遠的意思;意譯奧妙超凡,在萬有之後而無終;

前面這兩句:先先而无元,後後而妙有,意譯是“無始無終,自有永有的上帝。”)

惣玄摳而造化,妙眾聖以元尊者。其 唯我三一妙身,無元真主阿羅訶歟。

(惣是總的意思,聚也;阿羅訶是敍利文Eloha,或希伯來文的Elohim,原意指上帝的意思。意譯“祂掌握一切奇妙的權能,創造萬有,祂又超乎所有的聖人/神明,就是那唯一的三位一體,即聖父、聖子、聖靈,無始無終的上帝。”)

判十字以定四方,鼓元風而生二氣。暗空易而天地開,日月運而晝夜作。匠成萬物,然立初人,別賜良和,令鎮化海。渾元之性,虛而不盈。素蕩之心,本無希嗜。

(以十字架劃定四方,聖靈運行產生陰陽二氣。混沌黑暗被移動,天與地截然分開。太陽與月亮開始運作,有白晝有晚上。祂創造萬物之後,又造了第一人,特別賦予他以良知靈氣,又命令他看守大地。人原始的本性,謙虛而不驕傲。潔白的心靈,本來沒有過分的欲望。)

洎乎娑殫施妄,鈿飾純精。間平大於此是之中,隙冥同於彼非之內。

(洎,音記,灌水于釜大曰洎;娑殫,Satan撒但的音譯。意譯是“直到撒但使用了詭計,人的純潔與精誠被掩飾。牠間隔了正直和崇高,又把邪惡與陰暗帶入。”)

是以三百六十五種,肩隨結轍,競織法羅;或指物以託宗,或空有以淪二,或禱祀以邀福,或伐善以矯人。智慮營營,恩情役役。茫然無得,煎迫轉燒,積昧亡途,久迷休復。

(肩隨指並行後隨,結轍是使車往還,故轍如結也。意譯“因為365種族的湧現,編織出各種各樣的思潮/異端邪說,包括崇拜物質者,或一切皆空論者,抺殺了所有的對立。也有的提倡祈禱和祭祀,以求得幸福;有的則誇耀自己如何完美,假冒偽善。思慮重重,思緒不寧;茫茫然一無所得,心情焦急,頭腦發熱,前景一片黑暗,看不清方向,天長日久,迷途上再也不能回頭。”)

於是我 三一分身景尊彌施訶,戢隱真威,同人出代。神天宣慶,室女誕聖于大秦。景宿告祥,波斯睹耀以來貢。圓二十四聖有說之舊法,理家國於大猷。設 三一淨風無言之新教,陶良用於正信。制八境之度,鍊塵成真。啟三常之門,開生滅死。懸景日以破暗府,魔妄於是乎悉摧。棹慈航以登明宮,含靈於是乎既濟。能事斯畢,亭午昇真。

(景尊,景教的教主,救主的意思;彌施訶即敍利亞文及希伯來文的Messiah,指耶穌基督。

意思是三位一體的真神分身出來,就是耶穌基督,戢隱真威就是隱藏真神的威嚴,同人一樣來到人間。天使報告好消息,童貞女在猶太伯利恒誕生了聖嬰。東 方出現了一顆閃亮的吉兆明星,波斯有幾個博士目睹光輝而前往朝拜獻禮物。圓,應驗。這事應驗了舊約中24位先知的預言,使民族和國家走上治理的大道。三一淨風,指三位一體中的聖靈,就是立了新約三位一體中沉默無語的聖靈,使人依靠直正的信仰,發揮良好的作用。也可說因為聖靈的功用,設立了新教,陶造人類歸正的信仰。制八境指八福:虛心的人有福了,因為天國是他們的;哀痛的人有福了,因為他們必得安慰;溫柔的人有福了,因為他們必承受地土;饑渴慕義的人有福了,因為他們必得足;憐侐的人有福了,因為他們必蒙憐恤;清心的人有福了,因為他們必得見上帝;使人和睦的人有福了,因為他們必稱為上帝的兒子;為義受逼迫的人有福了,因為天國是他們的。制定八福的生活準則,使本為塵土所造的人也能成為聖潔。啟三常之門,指打開信、望、愛三張大門,打開了生命之道,消滅了死亡。懸景日,指高懸著的光耀的太陽,衝破了幽暗的地獄,魔鬼的一切作為被摧毀。划著慈愛的航船,登上光明的天宮,具有靈魂的人類,於是得到了救贖。祂完成了重大的使命,中午時分就升上了天空。)

經留二十七部,張元化以發靈關。法浴水風,滌浮華而潔虛白。印持十字,融四照以合無拘。擊木震仁惠之音,東禮趣生榮之路。存鬚所以有外行,削頂所以無內情。不畜臧獲,均貴賤於人。不聚貨財,示罄遺於我。齋以伏識而成,戒以靜慎為固。七時禮讚,大庇存亡。七日一薦,洗心反素。

(祂留下27卷新約經書,使教義得以普及,世界靈性得以發揚。以水與聖靈給人施洗,洗盡一切世俗情慾,恢復人類原有的謙虛潔白。舉起十字架作為印記,融合四方所有迷失道路的人們。敲響木鐸,發出震動人心的仁愛慈惠的聲音,讓大家崇拝時面向東方,追求生命與光明的道路。留存鬍鬚,因忙於外頭的工作;剃去頭頂,表明內心沒有私情。不豢養奴婢,待人無貴賤之分,不聚積財物,而願賙濟窮人。吃斋而控制胡思亂想,戒欲須寧靜謹慎。每天禮拜7次,第7天舉行一次聖餐/崇拜,以洗滌心靈,恢復純真。)

真常之道。妙而難名。功用昭彰。強稱景教。惟道非聖不弘。聖非道不大。道聖符契。天下文明。

(真正不變的道理,奇妙而難以命名。其功用顯著,勉強稱之為景教。可是只有道而沒有皇帝的支持,道就無法推行;皇帝若不推行道,就不夠偉大。當道與皇帝相結合,天下就因此而文明了。)


下列是自台灣東正教網路上的部份英文翻譯:

The Nestorian Stele (also known as the Nestorian Stone or Nestorian Tablet)

"Behold the unchangeably true and invisible, who existed through all eternity without origin; the far-seeing perfect intelligence, whose mysterious existence is everlasting; operating on primordial substance he created the universe, being more excellent than all holy intelligences, inasmuch as he is the source of all that is honorable.


This is our eternal true lord God, triune and mysterious in substance. He appointed the cross as the means for determining the four cardinal points, he moved the original spirit, and produced the two principles of nature; the somber void was changed, and heaven and earth were opened out; the sun and moon revolved, and day and night commenced; having perfected all inferior objects, he then made the first man; upon him he bestowed an excellent disposition, giving him in charge the government of all created beings; man, acting out the original principles of his nature, was pure and unostentatious; his unsullied and expansite mind was free from the least inordinate desire; until Satan introduced the seeds of falsehood, to deteriorate his purity of principle; the opening thus commenced in his virtue gradually enlarged, and by this crevice in his nature was obscured and rendered vicious; hence three hundred and sixty-five sects followed each other in continuous track, inventing every species of doctrinal complexity; while some pointed to material objects as the source of their faith, others reduced all to vacancy, even to the annihilation of the two primeval principles, some sought to call down blessings by prayers and supplications, while others by an assumption of excellence held themselves up as superior to their fellows; their intellects and thoughts continually wavering, their minds and affections incessantly on the move, they never obtained their vast desires, but being exhausted and distressed they revolved in their own heated atmosphere; till by an accumulation of obscurity they lost their path, and after long groping in darkness they were unable to return.


Thereupon, our Trinity being divided in nature, the illustrious and honorable Messiah, veiling his true dignity, appeared in the world as a man; angelic powers promulgated the glad tidings, a virgin gave birth to the Holy One in Syria; a bright star announced the felicitous event, and Persians observing the splendor came to present tribute; the ancient dispensation, as declared by the twenty-four holy men [the writers of the Old Testament], was then fulfilled, and he laid down great principles for the government of families and kingdoms; he established the new religion of the silent operation of the pure spirit of the Triune; he rendered virtue subservient to direct faith; he fixed the extent of the eight boundaries, thus completing the truth and freeing it from dross; he opened the gate of the three constant principles, introducing life and destroying death; he suspended the bright sun to invade the chambers of darkness, and the falsehoods of the devil were thereupon defeated; he set in motion the vessel of mercy by which to ascend to the bright mansions, whereupon rational beings were then released, having thus completed the manifestation of his power, in clear day he ascended to his true station.


Twenty-seven sacred books [the number in the New Testament] have been left, which disseminate intelligence by unfolding the original transforming principles. By the rule for admission, it is the custom to apply the water of baptism, to wash away all superficial show and to cleanse and purify the neophytes. As a seal, they hold the cross, whose influence is reflected in every direction, uniting all without distinction. As they strike the wood, the fame of their benevolence is diffused abroad; worshiping toward the east, they hasten on the way to life and glory; they preserve the beard to symbolize their outward actions, they shave the crown to indicate the absence of inward affections; they do not keep slaves, but put noble and mean all on an equality; they do not amass wealth, but cast all their property into the common stock; they fast, in order to perfect themselves by self-inspection; they submit to restraints, in order to strengthen themselves by silent watchfulness; seven times a day they have worship and praise for the benefit of the living and the dead; once in seven days they sacrifice, to cleanse the heart and return to purity.


It is difficult to find a name to express the excellence of the true and unchangeable doctrine; but as its meritorious operations are manifestly displayed, by accommodation it is named the Illustrious Religion. Now without holy men, principles cannot become expanded; without principles, holy men cannot become magnified; but with holy men and right principles, united as the two parts of a signet, the world becomes civilized and enlightened


5 条评论:

小弟 说...

有空在家庭茶会的时候也来讲解一下。

匿名 说...

please say Hi to 阿麒 for me. I went to Sekolah Tinggi with him...

Sarawakiana@2 说...

Ai yo.lo...so much learning and philosophy(?) on one long page...
You are indeed very learned.
First time for me to read this in English and Chinese (30% or less) together.

思问者 说...

博主,我在Google搜寻时知道您认识张文亮教授。

是以现在要冒昧向您索取张教授的email。

我有紧急事情想请他救3000条人命。

http://bancyanide.blogspot.com/

事关山埃污染环境,甚至夺命的悲剧。

谢谢!

我的email:wesleylogic@hotmail.com

天鵝江畔 说...

小弟,說的有理,問題是先知在本地不吃香,怕還沒開口大家就睡了!
匿名:遇到他會跟他講有一位以前老同學叫做匿名的向他請安!
CY,you know what is paper tiger, it looks serious, but actually nothing inside.Hahaha
思問者,你的問題與本文無關,但已把相關email給你了!張文亮的電郵:wenlian@ntu.edu.tw